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Chartbook on Women and Disability

Data Tables

These tables provide text-only equivalents of all the data presented in the figures throughout this Chartbook.


Figure 1: Americans with and without disability, by gender

Source: McNeil, 1997

Survey: SIPP, 1994-95

    Females Males
  Population No
Disability
With
Disability
No
Disability
With
Disability
# (in millions) 261.7 105.3 28.6 102.6 25.3
% of total population 100% 40.2% 10.9% 39.2% 9.7%
% of gender group - 78.7% 21.3% 80.2% 19.8%

Figure 2: Percentage with activity limitation, by age group and gender

Source: LaPlante & Carlson, 1996

Survey: NHIS, 1992

Age group Females Males
Under 18 5.0% 7.1%
18 - 64 14.4% 13.8%
65 - 84 36.7% 37.6%
85 and over 59.3% 50.2%
Total 15.4% 14.6%

Figure 3: Injury rate per 100 population, by gender

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1995

Survey: NHIS, 1983-1993

Year Females Males
1983 23.7 29.8
1984 22.9 30.1
1985 23.1 30.6
1986 23.3 29.8
1987 23.1 29.1
1988 21.6 27.7
1989 20.9 26.9
1990 21.0 28.1
1991 21.5 26.7
1992 20.7 26.8
1993 22.0 27.0

Figure 4: Number of disability days lost annually, per person, by gender

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997

Survey: NHIS, 1994

  Females Males
Bed-disability days 7.4 4.9
Work-loss days 5.9 4.6
School-loss days 5.0 4.1
Total restricted activity days 18.2 13.6

Figure 5: Percentage with disability, by ethnicity and gender

Sources: Bradsher, 1995; McNeil, 1993

Survey: SIPP, 1991-92

Ethnicity Females Males
White 20.3% 19.1%
Black 21.7% 18.0%
Native American 21.8% 21.9%
Asian 10.7% 9.1%
Hispanic 16.2% 14.3%

Figure 6: Disability rates for children and youth (0 to 21 years old) by age group and gender

Source: McNeil, 1997

Survey: SIPP, 1994-95

Age Group Females Males
Less than 3 years 1.9% 3.3%
3 to 5 years 3.5% 6.9%
6 to 14 years 9.6% 15.8%
15 to 21 years 10.8% 13.4%
Total: 0 to 21 years 8.0% 12.0%

Figure 7: Activity-limiting main conditions with highest prevalence for children under 18, by gender

Source: LaPlante & Carlson, 1996

Survey: NHIS, 1992

Condition Girls Boys
Respiratory diseases (mainly asthma) 24.8% 26.3%
Mental retardation 16.9% 17.9%
Mental disorders 6.1% 11.7%
Speech impairments 4.7% 7.5%
Nervous system diseases 4.9% 2.8%
Hearing impairments 4.0% 2.5%
Orthopedic impairments 4.5% 1.7%

Figure 8: Children and youth (0 to 21 years old) in special education, as percentage of total public school enrollment, by disability type

Sources: U.S. Department of Education, OSERS, 1996 and National Center for Education Statistics, 1997

Survey: Office of Special Education data, 1977-1995

Year 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995
All disabilities 8.3% 9.1% 10.1% 10.8% 11.0% 11.0% 11.3% 11.6% 12.0% 12.2%
Specific learning disabilities 1.8% 2.7% 3.6% 4.4% 4.7% 4.8% 4.9% 5.2% 5.5% 5.6%
Speech/language impairments 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3%
Mental retardation 2.2% 2.1% 2.0% 1.9% 1.8% 1.6% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 1.2%
Serious emotional disturbance 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 0.9% 0.9% 0.9% 1.0%

Figure 9: Percentage enrolled in special education, by gender and disability type

Sources: U.S. Dept of Education, OSERS, 1998; Valdes et al., 1990

Survey: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Data Analysis System

Disability Girls Boys
Learning disability 26.6% 73.4%
Emotional disturbance 23.6% 76.4%
Speech impairment 40.5% 59.5%
Mental retardation 42.0% 58.0%
Visual impairment 44.4% 55.6%
Hearing impairment 48.0% 52.0%
Deafness 45.5% 54.5%
Orthopedic impairment 45.8% 54.2%
Multiple disabilities 34.6% 65.4%
Deaf-blindness 50.5% 49.5%

Figure 10: Number (in thousands) of blind and disabled children (0 to 17 years old) receiving SSI, by gender

Source: Social Security Administration, 1988-1997

Survey: Social Security Administration Program Data, 1987-1996

Year Girls Boys
1988 124.0 168.5
1989 122.4 172.6
1990 136.7 197.9
1991 164.3 249.9
1992 226.7 361.7
1993 288.7 477.5
1994 325.9 559.0
1995 329.2 583.7
1996 339.6 602.6
1997 326.3 553.5
1998 323.4 561.8

Figure 11: Percentage with job or business, by disability status and gender, 21 to 64 years old

Source: McNeil, 1997

Survey: SIPP, 1994-95

Disability status Women Men
No disability 74.5% 89.8%
Non-severe disability 68.4% 85.1%
Severe disability 24.7% 27.8%

Figure 12: Number and percentage of people with and without disabilities in computer-related job categories, by gender, 16 to 64 years old

Source: J. McNeil, personal communication, January, 1999

Survey: SIPP, 1994-95, unpublished data

(Percentage in gender group is shown in parentheses)

  Women Men
  No disability With disability No disability With disability
Mathematical and
computer scientists
255,000
(83.2%)
51,400
(16.8%)
713,700
(92.5%)
58,000
(7.5%)
Computer
programmers
156,800
(94.4%)
9,300
(5.6%)
394,500
(89.7%)
45,400
(10.3%)
Computer equipment
operators
316,100
(91.7%)
28,700
(8.3%)
241,800
(85.8%)
40,000
(14.2%)

Figure 13: Percentage participating in labor force, by work disability status and gender, 16 to 64 years old

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census Website

Survey: CPS, 1998

Disability status Women Men
No work disability 75.8% 89.1%
Work disability 28.5% 32.3%

Figure 14: Median monthly earnings, by disability status and gender, 21 to 64 years old

Source: McNeil, 1997

Survey: SIPP, 1994-95

Disability status Women Men
No disability $1,470 $2,190
Non-severe disability $1,200 $1,857
Severe disability $1,000 $1,262

Figure 15: Percentage of people living below poverty level, by work disability status and gender, 16 to 64 years old

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1993

Survey: CPS, 1992

Disability status Women Men
No work disability 12.1% 8.1%
Work disability 33.8% 24.2%
Severe work disability 40.5% 31.2%

Figure 16: Percentage of people with work disability participating in assistance programs, by gender

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997

Survey: CPS, 1995

Assistance program Women Men
Social Security 25.6% 30.6%
Food stamps 29.1% 19.8%
Medicaid 36.2% 27.2%
Public housing 6.8% 4.4%
Subsidized housing 4.6% 2.7%

Figure 17: Average monthly Social Security benefit for disabled workers, by gender, in five-year increments

Source: Social Security Administration, 1997

Survey: Social Security Administration Program Data, 1960-1995

Year Women Men
1960 $77 $93
1965 $85 $102
1970 $113 $139
1975 $185 $244
1980 $296 $407
1985 $381 $534
1990 $464 $652
1995 $555 $762

Figure 18: Number of Vocational Rehabilitation cases closed, by type of closure and gender

Source: Rehabilitation Services Administration Program Data, FY1996

Type of closure Women Men
With employment outcome 96,319 117,471
Not eligible 57,866 73,309
No employment outcome 101,828 135,776

Figure 19: Marital status, by activity limitation status and gender, 18 years and older

Source: LaPlante & Carlson, 1996

Survey: NHIS, 1992

(Numbers in 1000's)

  Men Women
Marital status No activity
limitation
With activity
limitation
No activity
limitation
With activity
limitation
Never married 16,344 2,383 13,681 1,990
Divorced or separated 4,996 1,608 8,214 2,634
Widowed 1,237 872 6,461 4,553
Married 49,758 10,428 49,584 9,067

Figure 20: Percentage of adults with children under 18 years old in home, by disability status and gender

Source: Toms-Barker & Maralani, 1997

Survey: SIPP, 1993

Disability status Women Men
No disability 45% 35%
With disability 33% 26%
With severe disability 31% 18%

Figure 21: Per capita medical expenditures, by age group, activity limitation status, and gender

Source: Trupin, Rice, & Max, 1995

Survey: National Medical Expenditures Survey, 1987, with data updated to 1993

  No activity limitation With activity limitation
Age group Females Males Females Males
1 to 17 $734 $620 $1,670 $1,650
18 to 44 $1,217 $734 $2,938 $3,425
45 to 64 $1,324 $1,371 $4,365 $6,100
65+ $2,066 $2,640 $6,226 $6,525

Figure 22: Lifetime prevalence of certain types of psychiatric disorders, by gender

Sources: National Center for Health Statistics, 1996; Kessler, McGonagle, Zhao, et al., 1994

Survey: National Comorbidity Survey, 1990-92

Type of disorder Women Men
Any 47.3% 48.7%
Depressive 23.9% 14.7%
Anxiety 30.5% 19.2%
Substance use 17.9% 35.4%

Figure 23: Percentage of people with mental disorders who sought treatment, by gender and type of mental health provider

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, 1996

Survey: National Comorbidity Survey, 1990-92

Type of mental health provider Women Men
Any service 55.1% 42.3%
Health services 46.6% 31.5%
Human services 24.2% 16.6%
Self-help 13.7% 16.4%

Figure 24: Percentage of people with severe mental illness reporting limitations in aspects of daily functioning, by gender

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, 1996

Survey: NHIS, Mental Health Supplement, 1989

Type of limitation Women Men
Any non-work limitation 71.3% 87.0%
Coping with day-to-day stress 65.9% 79.1%
Social functioning 41.9% 60.0%
Concentrating to complete tasks 41.4% 59.2%
IADLs 16.9% 34.7%

Figure 25: Percentage of women and men who were 50 years old in 1990, 1950, and 1990, who can expect to live to the age of 90

Source: Guralnik, et al., 1997

Survey: Census and Census projections, multiple years

Year Women Men
1900 3.4% 2.4%
1950 10.0% 5.2%
1990 22.3% 10.4%

Figure 26: Percentage of people needing personal assistance with ADLs or IADLs, by age group and gender

Source: LaPlante & Carlson, 1996

Survey: NHIS, 1992

Age group Women Men
18 to 44 1.7% 1.6%
45 to 64 5.5% 3.8%
65 to 74 10.4% 8.2%
75 & older 30.5% 20.3%

Figure 27: Percentage of those with chronic conditions who have more than one condition, by age group

Source: Hoffman & Rice, 1996

Survey: National Medical Expenditures Survey, 1987

Age group Percentage with more
than one condition
0-17 years 17%
18-44 years 29%
45-64 years 51%
65 years + 69%

Figure 28: Percentage of people with more than one chronic condition, by gender

Sources: Hoffman & Rice, 1996/Guralnik, 1989

Survey: National Medical Expenditures Survey, 1987

Age Women Men
60 to 69 45% 35%
70 to 79 61% 47%
80 and over 70% 53%

Figure 29: Age-adjusted prevalence and activity limitation due to arthritis, by gender

Source: Centers for Disease Control, 1994a, 1994b

Survey: NHIS, 1989-91

  Women Men
Activity limitation 3.4% 2.0%
Prevalence 17.1% 12.5%

Figure 30: Percentage of women over 50 with osteoporosis, by age group

Source: Bockman, 1997; Melton, 1997

Survey: Rochester Epidemiology Project, multiple years

Age group Percentage with
osteoporosis of
spine, hip or arm
50's 14.8%
60's 21.6%
70's 38.5%
80+ 70.0%

Figure 31: Living arrangement status of women and men 65 years and older, by age group

Source: Guralnik, 1997

Surveys: National Nursing Home Survey, 1995; NHIS-D, 1994

  Women Men
Age group At home,
indepen-
dent
At home,
needs
assistance
In
nursing
home
At home,
indepen-
dent
At home,
needs
assistance
In
nursing
home
65+ (total) 81.2% 13.5% 5.3% 88.1% 9.4% 2.5%
65-74 91.7% 6.9% 1.4% 92.8% 6.1% 1.1%
75-84 77.5% 16.0% 6.5% 84.4% 12.3% 3.3%
85 + 45.2% 37.5% 17.4% 63.1% 26.6% 10.3%

Figure 32: Gender of people who provide care to older people with chronic health conditions

Source: National Alliance for Caregiving, 1997

Survey: National Alliance for Caregiving Survey, 1996

Gender of caregiver Percentage
Women 72.5%
Men 27.5%