Section 6: Women, disability and aging
6.1. How do changes in women's life expectancies impact disability rates?
The average life expectancy for women has increased markedly in the past century, from 48.3 years in 1900 to 78.9 years in 1991. As shown below, the increase in life expectancy for older women has been especially dramatic in the second half of the century. In 1900, people who were 50 years old rarely lived to the age of 90. Even in 1950, only 10% of 50 year-old women could expect to survive to the age of 90. However, by 1990, nearly one-quarter of 50-year-old women could expect to live to the age of 90.
Almost one out of every four women who were 50 years old in 1990 can expect to live to the age of 90.
Figure 25: Percentage of women and men who were 50 years old in 1900, 1950, and 1990, who can expect to live to the age of 90
Source: Guralnik, et al. (1997).
Surveys: National Center for Health Statistics and U.S. Bureau of the Census, multiple surveys and multiple years
Changes in birth and mortality rates are leading to large increases in the population of older people, especially older women. By the year 2040, women 65 and older are projected to number 40.8 million, nearly nine times the number of women who were 65 and older in 1940. Even more striking is the fact that more than one in five of these elderly women will be 85 years of age or older, the group most likely to be disabled by chronic health conditions. Women live longer than men, but have more physical disability in each age group.
The population of elderly women is expected to increase dramatically by the year 2040.
Growth of the Older Population in the United States, 1940 to 2040
Table 7: Growth and estimated growth of the older population in the United States, 1940-2040
Source: Guralnik, et al. (1997); Day (1996)
Surveys: U.S. Bureau of the Census, multiple years, and U.S. Bureau of the Census projections